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C dating can also be used to calculate the time interval represented in periodic histological structures in dental tissues (i.e., perikymata), which in turn may be used as chronometers in fossil teeth.Bomb-curve C dating of confiscated animal tissues (e.g., ivory statues) can be used to determine whether trade of the item is legal, because many Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species restrictions are based on the age of the tissue, and thus can serve as a powerful forensic tool to combat illegal trade in animal parts. This occurs naturally from secondary neutron flux generated by cosmic rays and anthropogenically by high neutron flux from nuclear fission in bombs or, to a lesser degree, nuclear reactors.C-derived growth rates from extant species can also be used to determine the period (e.g., days or weeks) represented in growth increments in dental tissues, providing a basis for establishing a chronometer in fossil teeth.Chronologic control is imperative in intratooth stable isotope and histological studies that aim to evaluate seasonal variability in past environments.= 5) and an upper (n =3) canine of an individual, presumed to be a juvenile or young adult based on canine shape and size, give linear growth rates of 3.35 ± 0.25 cm/y and 1.94 ± 0.31 cm/y, respectively (Fig. Growth rates from the 48- and 8-y-old females were 1.35 cm/y and 2.9 cm/y, respectively.

Growth rates from both molars range from 1.39 ± 0.27 to 1.63 ± 0.14 cm/y (Table 1 and Fig.The latter is determined by the extension of the molar plate as new dentin and immature enamel are formed, whereas the former represents the difference between the average ages of the enamel volumes sampled at each position along the plate.If molar extension and enamel maturation processes were constant throughout molar formation, then mineralization and extension rates would be equal. 3 shows sample locations in the third molar (m3) from TE-95.Tissues formed during the steeper parts of the bomb-curve tend to have residuals less than 2 y (Fig. The current slope of the bomb-curve is shallower than during the interval from 1955 to C value of 0.9749 ± 0.0023 (this and all subsequent SDs are 2σ), which clearly indicates it formed before 1955.Nearly 70% of the blue monkey’s diet is fruit and leaves, so significant dietary contribution from older plant material (more than several years old) is unlikely (17).Atmospheric through air–sea exchange and subsequent vertical mixing and becomes part of the biologically available dissolved inorganic carbon pool.

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