Apostolic dating rules is emily oment dating michel musso

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At an early period we meet with expressions referring to the body of ecclesiastical legislation then in process of formation: ); however, strictly speaking, there is a slight difference of meaning between the two expressions: canon law denotes in particular the law of the "Corpus Juris", including the regulations borrowed from Roman law; whereas ecclesiastical law refers to all laws made by the ecclesiastical authorities as such, including those made after the compiling of the "Corpus Juris". In the fourth century it was applied to the ordinances of the councils, and thus contrasted with the Greek word , the ordinances of the civil authorities; the compound word "Nomocanon" was given to those collections of regulations in which the laws formulated by the two authorities on ecclesiastical matters were to be found side by side.However, the method of studying and teaching gradually developed: if the early decretalists made use of the elementary plan of the gloss and literal commentary, their successors in composing their treatises were more independent of the text; they commented on the titles, not on the chapters or the words; often they followed the titles or chapters only nominally and artificially.

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For centuries, nothing more was done than to collect successively the canons of councils, ancient and recent, the letters of popes, and episcopal statutes; guidance was sought for in these, when analogous cases occurred, but no one thought of extracting general principles from them or of systematizing all the laws then in force.This exceptional law is often referred to as a privilege (), though the expression is applied more usually to concessions made to an individual.The common law, therefore, is that which is to be observed with regard to a certain matter, unless the legislator has foreseen or granted exceptions; for instance, the laws regulating benefices contain special provisions for benefices subject to the right of patronage.But, while compilations of texts and official collections were available for Roman law, or "Corpus juris civilis", Gratian had no such assistance.He therefore adopted the plan of inserting the texts in the body of his general treatise; from the disordered mass of canons collected from the earliest days, he selected not only the law actually in force (eliminating the regulations which had fallen into desuetude, or which were revoked, or not of general application) but also the principles; he elaborated a system of law which, however incomplete, was nevertheless methodical. the methodical and coordinated knowledge of ecclesiastical law, was at length established.They treated successively of the depositaries of authority, procedure, the clergy and the things pertaining to them, marriage, crimes and penalties.

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